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Steve Jobs

On Wednesday 5th, October 2011 Steven Paul Jobs died at age 56 in the United States. Apple's creator has imposed simplicity of vision on the technology market.

The most revered creative entrepreneurs of the 20th century

The 56-years entrepreneur has founded Apple (the largest public company in the world), the Pixar animation studio and is the father of products like the Macintosh, iPod, iPhone and iPad.

Idolized by the consumers of their products and many of the employees who founded in a garage in Silicon Valley, California, and helped turn the largest publicly traded company in the world by market value, Jobs was one of the greatest defenders the popularization of technology. Believed that computers and gadgets should be easy enough to be operated by anyone, as he liked to repeat in one of his favorite catchphrases: "it just works". The impact of this vision was beyond her company and helped pull the evolution of products such as Windows, Microsoft.

Jobs's fight against cancer since 2004 left him physically weakened in the years of greatest commercial success of Apple, which escaped bankruptcy in the late 90s to become the largest technology company on the planet. Since then, he underwent a liver transplant and saw his obituary accidentally posted on important vehicles such as Bloomberg. There are 42 days left the helm of the company.

As most Americans of his generation, he had to deal with death and he feared it, from the days of October 1962 that marked the culmination of the Cuban missile crisis. "I was without sleep for three or four nights because I was afraid that if I went to sleep would not wake up," he said in 1995, the museum's oral history of the Smithsonian Institute.

"Nobody wants to die," he said later in a speech to graduates of Stanford University in June 2005, a curious achievement for a man who never earned a college degree. "Even people who want to go to heaven do not want to die to get there. On the other hand, death is a fate from which we all share. No one escapes. It's the way it should be, because death is very likely the best invention of life. It is the agent's life. Clean out the old to make space for the new. "

The best invention of life, in the words of Zen Buddhist Jobs, leaves the technology industry the orphan of his "man-zeitgeist", ie, the entrepreneur who perhaps best captured the essence of their time. Jobs bet on digital music stored in flash memory when the market would still be struggling about protecting CDs to escape from piracy.

He believed it was necessary to spend computing power to create user-friendly graphical environments while industry giants still taught users how to edit the "AUTOEXEC.BAT" file to configure their machines. He saw the opportunity to create smartphones for ordinary people while the focus of the major manufacturers was to repeat the BlackBerry corporate success.

Jobs under the command, Apple said depend very little market research. "You can not go out asking people what is the next big thing they want. Henry Ford said that if he had asked your customers about what they wanted, the answer would be a faster horse, "he said in an interview with "Fortune "in 2008. In 2010, when asked about how Apple had spent on research consumers had been done to create the iPad, Jobs said that "does not make the consumer's job to find out what he wants. We do not spend one US dollar with it."

Not always this skill ensured the success of Apple, as in the first version of Apple TV, adapted computer to work with media center that failed a volume of relevant sales. But Jobs could minimize failures: in the case of Apple TV, he said that it was a "hobby", a personal project that did not make much difference in the company's plans.

Perfectionist and workaholic, Jobs liked to control all Apple production points, resisting even the decision to gradually outsource the manufacturing of the company's products for Chinese manufacturers - proposed plan and executed by now new commander of the company, Tim Cook, and which proved to be settled.

Any Apple product only reaches the consumer if it passed by Jobs standards of quality and eccentricity. This included, according to reports, the number of screws at the bottom of a notebook and the curvature of the edges of a monitor. On the announcement that Jobs was leaving the helm of Apple, Vic Gundotra, Google Plus creator, said he received a call from the president of Apple on Sunday to ask for it to be corrected color of the Google shortcut icon letters the iPhone.

In the search for products that were meeting with their standard of quality staff, Jobs was criticized on two fronts. Competitors and many of the consumers who were trying to escape the so-called "reality distortion field" created by Apple complained the various decisions that made the company's products a "closed garden" incompatible with the rest of the world and restricted to standards that went beyond technological constraints. Technically it was always possible to install any software on the iPhone, but Apple requires that consumers only have access to programs approved by the company.

Internally, among some of its employees, left the image of "tyrant." Alan Deutschman, author of "The second coming of Steve Jobs" said that, next to the "good Steve" the magician of the presentations as anticipated by didacticism and ability to bring together consumer interest to, there was also "bad Steve" , a guy who liked to scream, humiliate and diminish any person to cause you some sort of displeasure.

In "The Guardian", a former employee who worked at Apple for 17 years compared living with Steve with the feeling of being constantly in front of a flamethrower. In the magazine "Wired", the former Apple engineer Edward Eigerman said: "More than anywhere else I've worked before or since, there's a lot of concern about being fired" from Apple employees. The same publication reported that the executive director did not see problems to park his Mercedes in the company of the area reserved for disabled people - sometimes, he held up two of those spaces.

Jobs also always needed a "Nemesis", an enemy to satanize and ridicule in public and counterpoint of its shares in Apple. The first target was IBM, who played in the personal computer market mainly in the early 80. Then Microsoft, creator of MS-DOS and Windows. More recently, Jobs was targeting Google, the Internet search giant whose president has come to be part of Apple's board of directors, which invested in the systems market for smartphones with Android. Jobs ordered Apple to fight, even if court against the program that he considered plagiarism iOS, heart iPhone and iPad.

The business success of Jobs is still a major remnants of the transformation of the counterculture of the 60s and 70s mainstream in the following decades. The company now fight to be the largest in the world was founded after Jobs go to India in 1973 in search of the guru Neem Karoli Baba. The Maharaji died before the arrival of Jobs, but the American said he had found the lighting in the LSD.

"My experiences with LSD was one of the two or three most important things I've done in my life," he said in an interview with "New York Times". Then he said his rival, Bill Gates "he'd be a broader guy if he had dropped acid once". The LSD was the same drug that fascinated the inventor of the mouse and the graphical environment precursor, Douglas Englebart about ten years before Jobs.

Coincidentally were the mouse and the graphical environment the inventions called Jobs' attention on the fateful visit to the Xerox laboratory in Palo Alto, in 1979. It is one of the stories told and retold in Silicon Valley, and versions ranging from accusations industrial espionage to the simple exchange by Apple patent that Xerox would not have interest in developing for the company's shares, which would open its capital the following year.

The fact is that Jobs's team returned the enchanted visit with the metaphor of the "desktop" used by the Xerox Alto. The integration of icons representing each of the computer's functions, accessed via an arrow controlled by a mouse, was the basis of the Apple Lisa and then the Macintosh.

With the "Mac", finally Jobs managed to put into practice the vision that was developed in partnership with friend and partner Steve Wozniak, responsible for creating technical solutions that made the first Apple computers machines that changed the computing landscape " garage "that had been developing in the United States in the '70s now, eight years after the founding of the company, Jobs and" Woz "had a computer that was not made for" the rest of us. "

"Some people believe that we need to put an IBM PC on every desk to improve productivity. It will not work. The special magic words you need to learn are things like 'Q-Z bar'. The manual for WordStar, word processor more popular, has 400 pages. To write a book, you need to read a book -. and one that looks like a complex mystery to most people, "said Jobs in an interview published by the American Playboy on February 1985.

In the sentence, Jobs demonstrates that want to face IBM, born giant at the beginning of the century and, after dominating the enterprise server market, also wanted to take the personal computer industry. For him, the IBM machines were made "by engineers and for engineers," and there was a need to create something for the "rest" or, as would the famous campaign "Think Different" of the 1997 Apple, a computer to " the insane, the misfits, the rebels (..), the round pieces fitted in square holes. "

But the Mac's success - would later drive the adoption of graphical environments even among IBM computers (with Windows, created by Microsoft) - did not prevent Jobs had just fired from his own company. The infighting between teams that wanted to invest in the corporate market and those that bet only on the consumer caused John Sculley from Pepsi at the invitation of Jobs himself, convinced the board that it was time the company get rid of its founder.

During the decade he was away, Jobs made two investments that ended up in different ways by leveraging the myth around his "midas touch". In the first, we paid $ 10 million for the problematic computer graphics division of Lucasfilm, George Lucas company responsible for the film franchises like Star Wars and Indiana Jones. The new company was named Pixar, and topple after hits like "Toy Story," "A Bug's Life," "Monsters, Inc." and "Finding Nemo" was eventually acquired by Disney for $ 7.4 billion in 2006. process, Jobs became the largest single shareholder of Mickey Mouse company.

Another investment was the seed not only the return of Jobs to Apple, but was directly related to the emergence of the World Wide Web, invention that propelled the growth of the Internet worldwide. With NeXT, Jobs developed powerful computers suitable for educational use and development programs. A NeXT terminal was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the world's first web server in 1991. In December 1996, Apple acquired NeXT, move that served to incorporate technologies to the group and bring Jobs back to the command of company.

The Jobs's return marks the beginning of an era of growth for Apple unusual in the history of American capitalism. The sequence of successes - some linked to changes in the paradigm of major markets - including the MacBook, iPod music player, the iTunes store, the iPhone and the iPad. Most of these products come from ideas imposed by Jobs himself. In the "Fortune" magazine in 2008, Jobs talked about his much-acclaimed creativity - "always coupled with hard work," as he emphasized. "You can not go out asking people what is the next big thing they want. Henry Ford said that if he had asked your customers about what they wanted, the answer would be a faster horse."

In this second pass, Jobs also reinforced the legacy of a unique entrepreneur, imposing a holistic view on the creation, development and sale of its products, from the first screw in the plastic that would pack the box of each device, through cost advertising strategy sales.

The same discretion that Jobs imposes for jobs - Apple releases the were always treated as secret, increasing speculation generate a movement that ended up serving as free publicity - was adopted in his personal life. Therefore, the struggle of the executive against the pancreatic cancer was treated with much secrecy, giving rise to a plethora of rumors.

In 2004, Jobs underwent treatment after discovering a rare type of the disease. During 2008, Jobs was appearing thinner and thinner and the rumors increased, until he announced in January 2009 his retirement from the company's board for health care. In early 2011, new clearance until, in August, Jobs left Apple for good control. "I always said that if the day came when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple's CEO, I would be the first to inform them of this. Unfortunately, that day has come," he said in a statement.

The private life did, for example, that Jobs had no direct contact with their biological family. Born February 24, 1955 in San Francisco, son of the then university students Abdulfattah John Jandali, a Syrian immigrant and follower of Islam, and Joanne Simpson, was delivered to adoption when his mother traveled from Wisconsin to California to give birth.

The biological grand-father did not approve his daughter marrying a Muslim immigrant. There, Jobs was adopted by Justin and Clara Jobs, who lived in Mountain View. His biological parents later married and had a daughter, the novelist Mona Simpson, who only discovered the existence of his brother as an adult.

From his adoptive father, Jobs inherited the passion to assemble and disassemble objects. Like Paul, Steve was never an expert in electronics, but to learn the basics managed to approach the right people in the right place. Living in Silicon Valley, he met Steve Wozniak, genius creator of the first Apple computer. He worked at Atari intil he decided to create, with Woz, his own company.

In another connection with the counterculture, Jobs would have had a short relationship with folk singer Joan Baez, former girlfriend of Bob Dylan music icon, perhaps the greatest idol of the entrepreneur.

Married Laurene Powell since 1991, Jobs leaves four children: Reed Paul, Erin Sienna and Eve, born of his relationship with Laurene, and Lisa Brennan-Jobs, from a previous relationship with the painter Chrisann Brennan.

Last update: May 8th, 2015. That's all.

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